At the time, World War II was raging around the world, and so, too, were hunger and starvation. Over the centuries, people had recorded anecdotal reports of the effects of famine and starvation, but there was little in the scientific literature that described its physiological and psychological effects. Just as important, doctors and researchers didn't know how to help people rehabilitate and recover from starvation.Eager to take on the challenge was Ancel Keys, PhD, the physiologist in charge of the Minnesota lab. The lab's chief psychologist, Josef Brozek, PhD, was responsible for gathering the psychological data on the effects of starvation. Brozek had completed his doctoral degree in 1937 at Charles University in Prague with interests in applied psychology, physiology and physical anthropology, and joined the Minnesota lab in 1941.Among his duties, Brozek assisted in recruiting subjects for the study. In previous nutrition studies at the lab, Keys had drawn subjects from the ranks of the Civilian Public Service (CPS). During World War II, the CPS provided conscientious objectors an alternative to military combat service. These objectors were often referred to as human guinea pigs because of their willingness to serve in medical experiments. Keys knew from experience that many conscientious objectors were eager to do meaningful work that would benefit humanity and was confident that the starvation experiment would attract the needed volunteers.Subject selection was stringent. Subjects had to be male, single and demonstrate good physical and mental health (largely based on the newly developed Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). They also had to show an ability to get along well with others under trying circumstances and an interest in relief work. The final 36 men were selected from more than 200 volunteers and in November 1944 made their way to the University of Minnesota to begin their service.The research protocol called for the men to lose 25 percent of their normal body weight. They spent the first three months of the study eating a normal diet of 3,200 calories a day, followed by six months of semi-starvation at 1,570 calories a day (divided between breakfast and lunch), then a restricted rehabilitation period of three months eating 2,000 to 3,200 calories a day, and finally an eight-week unrestricted rehabilitation period during which there were no limits on caloric intake. Their diet consisted of foods widely available in Europe during the war, mostly potatoes, root vegetables, bread and macaroni. The men were required to work 15 hours per week in the lab, walk 22 miles per week and participate in a variety of educational activities for 25 hours a week. Throughout the experiment, the researchers measured the physiological and psychological changes brought on by near starvation.
Aura of Pain (Su): The famine spirit radiates a continuous symbol of pain effect (save DC 28) as a 60-foot-radius emanation. A creature that fails its save is affected while within the area and for 10 minutes after leaving it. A successful save makes a creature immune to that famine spirit's aura pain for 24 hours.
Create Spawn (Su): A famine spirit rarely leaves corpses in its wake, but sometimes it is forced to flee and leave slain opponents behind. Each of these corpses rises in 1d3 days; a famine spirit, unless a protection from evil spell is cast upon it before that time.
Ethereal Jaunt (Su): Three times per day, a famine spirit can produce an ethereal jaunt effect (caster level 20th). It uses this ability primarily to enter storehouses or to deal with ethereal interlopers.
Famine spirits ignore most other living things, turning on them only if they get in the way of its feasting, or if there is nothing else to consume. It fights primarily with its jaws, attempting to bite off the heads of any opponents.
The famine spirit, also called a ravenous ghoul, is a corporeal undead motivated entirely by hunger. It seeks to consume in death all that it was denied in life. It eats everything and anything that a living being could, but its hunger is never sated. A famine spirit can consume comestibles of a Mordekainen's magnificent mansion (caster level 14th) in a mere 5 hours and still be hungry for more. In a day, it can consume as many as one hundred humans.
A famine spirit appears as an obscenely obese humanoid or monstrous humanoid with a mouth full of razor-sharp teeth. Should the need present itself, a famine spirit can unhinge its jaw to swallow objects too large for it to consume normally.
\"Today there is a great ideological struggle going on in the world. One side upholds what it calls the materialistic dialectic. Denying the existence of spiritual values, it maintains that man responds only to materialistic influences and consequently he is nothing. He is an educated animal and is useful only as he serves the ambitions -- desires -- of a ruling clique; though they try to make this finer-sounding than that, because they say their dictatorship is that of the proletariat, meaning that they rule in the people's name -- for the people. Now, on our side, we recognize right away that man is not merely an animal, that his life and his ambitions have at the bottom a foundation of spiritual values.\"Remarks at 11th Annual Washington Conference of the Advertising Council, 3/22/55
\"A sound nation is built of individuals sound in body and mind and spirit. Government dares not ignore the individual citizen.\"Address at a Rally in the Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio, 10/1/56 [AUDIO]
\"I would say that the Presidency is probably the most taxing job, as far as tiring of the mind and spirit; but it also has, as I have said before, its inspirations which tend to counteract each other . . . There have been times in war where I thought nothing could be quite as wearing and tearing as that with lives directly involved. But I would say, on the whole, this is the most wearing, although not necessarily, as I say, the most tiring.\"The President's News Conference at Key West, Florida, 1/8/56
\"The churches of America are citadels of our faith in individual freedom and human dignity. This faith is the living source of all our spiritual strength. And this strength is our matchless armor in our world-wide struggle against the forces of godless tyranny and oppression.\"Message to the National Co-Chairmen, Commission of Religious Organizations, National Conference on Christians and Jews, 7/9/53
\"From this day forward, the millions of our school children will daily proclaim in every city and town, every village and rural school house, the dedication of our nation and our people to the Almighty. To anyone who truly loves America, nothing could be more inspiring than to contemplate this rededication of our youth, on each school morning, to our country's true meaning.Especially is this meaningful as we regard today's world. Over the globe, mankind has been cruelly torn by violence and brutality and, by the millions, deadened in mind and soul by a materialistic philosophy of life. Man everywhere is appalled by the prospect of atomic war. In this somber setting, this law and its effects today have profound meaning. In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America's heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our country's most powerful resource, in peace or in war.\"Statement by the President Upon Signing Bill to Include the Words \"Under God\" in the Pledge to the Flag, 6/14/54
\"War is mankind's most tragic and stupid folly; to seek or advise its deliberate provocation is a black crime against all men. Though you follow the trade of the warrior, you do so in the spirit of Washington -- not of Genghis Khan. For Americans, only threat to our way of life justifies resort to conflict.\"Graduation Exercises at the United States Military Academy, 6/3/47
\"We must be strong at home if we are going to be strong abroad. We understand that. So we want to be strong at home in our morale or in our spirit, we want to be strong intellectually, in our education, in our economy and, where necessary, militarily.\"Radio and Television Broadcast: \"The Women Ask the President,\" 10/24/56
In 1853, Nevius married Helen Coan and, on June 15 of that year, the couple set off, as missionaries, on a 6-month sea voyage to Ningpo, in the Zhejiang province on the southeast coast of China, arriving in the spring of 1854. He and his wife immediately set about learning the language, and Nevius's subsequent interest in the phenomenon of spirit possession was sparked off by conversations about the supernatural with his language tutor, Mr. Tu; the Chinese had a strong belief in the reality and power of the spirit world that was part of an animistic tradition in Chinese folk religion.
In 1871, they moved to Chefoo and built a house there called \"Nan Lou\". In 1873, John embarked on a taxing 600-mile missionary tour by foot, finding rest and sustenance at whatever establishments he could find along the way. In 1877, there was a famine in the province of Shantung (the \"Great North China Famine\"), and he played a pivotal role in raising funds, setting up a food distribution centre and organising a relief corps from quarters at Kao-Yai. Famine struck again in 1889, and Nevius's abilities were, once more, called upon.
Nevius was the author of several books covering the subjects of Chinese religions, spiritual practices and social and political life, spirit possession and missionary work; his wife also wrote an exhaustive biography (see bibliography).
God communicated to people through prophecy for nearly the entire bib